Rosenberg‑C‑M. Paraprofessionals in alcoholism treatment. In: E. Pattison, and E. Kaufman, Eds., Encyclopedic Handbook of Alcoholism, New York, NY: Gardner Press, 1982. 1230 p. (pp. 802‑809).


A brief history is presented of how lay persons, many of whom were former alcoholics, have been involved in religious and humanitarian movements to combat alcoholism. The establishment of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as a result of the break down of the division of labor between lay organizations and the generic health care system, is briefly described, including the incorporation and training of alcoholism counselors (paraprofessionals) as members of the treatment team. The conflict between professionals and paraprofessionals concerning the recent trend to introduce alcoholism treatment into the mainstream of medical practice is discussed, and the present and future roles of the paraprofessional in alcoholism treatment are examined.



Bissell‑L. Recovered alcoholic counselors. In: E. Pattison, and E. Kaufman, Eds., Encyclopedic Handbook of Alcoholism, New York, NY: Gardner Press, 1982. 1230 p. (pp. 810‑817).


The author contends that a person is not equipped to counsel alcoholics simply by virtue of being a trained mental health professional with normal and abnormal development and psychodynamics. In this chapter, the advantages of using recovered alcoholics as counselors are discussed, with emphasis given to their experiences with alcohol, other alcoholics, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Attitudes and beliefs of recovered alcoholic counselors are described, including their treatment strengths, contacts with other professions, competence, credentialing, and employment settings. Problems concerning the use of recovered alcoholics as counselors are also discussed.




 St. Germaine, J. Ethical practices of certified addiction counselors: A national survey of state certification boards. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 15(2):63‑72, 1997.


Fifty‑five addiction counselor certification boards were surveyed to determine the frequency and categories of ethical complaints filed against certified addiction counselors and the board actions taken during the years 1991 and 1992. Certification boards also were asked to respond to questions about their policies and procedures relating to ethical complaints and training requirements. The most common complaints against addiction counselors were for having a sexual relationship with a current client, being unable to practice with skill and safety due to alcohol, drugs, or other mental or physical condition, and practicing without a certificate.