Author Snowdon, Lonn_i_e__; Cotlei', Sheldon. Title The effectiveness of ex‑addict drug abuse counselors. Source Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association.. 1973, 403404. Abstract The investigation served to identify personal characteristics that distinguished 25 relatively effective counselors (each a Negro heroin addict) in an urban methadone treatment program. Each counselor was assigned about 30 clients. It was hypothesized that without formal professional counselor training, the course and outcome of therapy would rest on the personal qualities of each exaddict counselor. Elevated scores on MMPI subscales, e.g., Mania and Paranoia, were associated with more successful counseling, as measured by the clients' attendance for counseling, drug pick up, and urine analyses. It is concluded that counselors who acknowledge and discuss their personal concerns in counseling relationships may indeed serve as effective models for their addict clients.




1977 Author Brown, Barry S; T_hompson, Raymon_dF. Title The effectiveness of formerly addicted and nonaddicted counselors on clie r functioning. Source Drug Forum. Vol 5(2), 1975; 1976, 123‑129. Abstract The functioning of 52 addict‑clients assigned to 29 nonaddict counselors was compared to the functioning of 84 addict‑clients assigned to 30 ex‑addict counselors. Over a 12 mo period no differences were found between groups in terms of retention in program (including use of methadone), use of illicit drugs, employment, or rates of arrest. Prior use of heroin did not appear either to enhance or detract from counselor performance. Findings are discussed in terms of apparent differences in the criteria used to judge the employability of nonaddict as compared with ex‑addict counselor candidates. A counselor training model is suggested to allow for the full utilization of the potential possessed by the ex‑addict counselor.




1979 Author Argeriou, Milton; Manohar, Velandy. Title Relative effectiveness of nonalcoholics and recovered alcoholics as counselors. Source Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Vol 39(5), May 1978, 793‑799. Abstract Compared the treatment outcome of 273 problem drinkers served by 7 counselors, 4 of whom (2 men and 2 women) were recovered alcoholics (RACs) with an average of 6 yrs of abstinence and 3 of whom (2 men and 1 woman) had no history of alcoholism (NACs). The RACs counseled 134 patients (mean age 37.54 yrs) and the NACs counseled 139 Ss (mean age 33.89 yrs). Results show that positive changes in drinking behavior occurred significantly more often in young patients served by RACs than in young patients served by NACs. This difference was not evident in patients aged 35 and over. The general level of the counseling performance of the RACs was comparable to and in some instances better than that of the NACs.





Skuja A. Battenberg B. Wood D. Bucky S.


The impact of paraprofessional alcoholism counselor training.


International Journal of the Addictions. 15(6):931‑8, 1980 Aug.


The present study evaluated the impact of a Navy alcoholism counselor training program. Forty‑five trainees were tested before and after an intense 10‑week training period at the Naval Alcohol Rehabilitation Center in San Diego. A pilot study enabled methodology refinement and selection of instruments most discriminating change over training. Based on pilot data, 12 measures were utilized: nine personality scales from a short form MMPI (Mini‑Mult) and the Comrey Personality Scale, an alcoholism knowledge and attitude test, and a counseling skills effectiveness measure. Results indicate a significant positive change over training on several measures of alcoholism attitudes, knowledge. and counselor effectiveness. Significant differences were also noted on several personality scales indicating change toward the normal range. The findings suggest that the training appeared to have a significant positive impact on trainees. Some implications and limitations are discussed.




1980 Author Curtis, James L; Mike, Valerie. Title Methadone maintenance: Measuring treatment outcomes. Source New York State Journal of Medicine. Vol 78(14), Dec 1978, 2177‑2182. Abstract Reports a series of progress evaluations by a clinic staff of the social rehabilitation status f their 189 methadone maintenance patients. At the end of the 4‑mo evaluation period, the staff of counselors, nurses, and physicians jointly concluded that 18% of the patients should be rated, in terms of treatment outcome, as clinically improving; 50% as standing still or stabilized, and 32% as worsening. Improving patients differed significantly in specific behavior: More were employed, and fewer were continuing to have problems with opiates, other drugs, or alcohol. All counselors initially overestimated their own success rates, and there was a significant variation among counselors with respect to the final rating of their patients by the combined staff. A composite clinical team judgment appears to provide the best protection against unsound treatment planning, practice, and evaluation. Favorable social rehabilitation, examined in terms of data from screening interviews at the beginning of the average of 2 yrs of clinic treatment, was associated with more education, younger age, and a shorter history of opiate use.




Thrower‑J‑H; Tyler‑J‑D. Edwards Personal Preference Schedule correlates of addiction counselor effectiveness. International Journal of the Addictions, 21(2):191‑193, 1986. (087412)


The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) was examined as a tool for identifying effective inpatient chemical dependency counselors. Subjects were 21 male and 10 female addiction counselors (M age=35.8, SD=12.0, Range=1.44) working in inpatient treatment cent7ers in Minnesota and North Dakota. Counselors had an average of 3.2 years of experience in addiction counseling. Fifteen were recovering chemically dependent individuals. Eighteen were married, nine were single, and four were divorced. None was trained at a master's or doctoral level. The EPPS scores were correlated with ratings and rankings of effectiveness by supervisors and peers. Counselors judged as more effective scored higher on Dominance and Heterosexuality and lower on Order. When compared to their respective normative samples, both male and female counselors scored higher in Intraception and Heterosexuality and lower on Order and Endurance. The findings suggest that characteristics suitable for other types of counseling activities are not necessarily optimal for alcoholic and addiction counselors.




1992 Author Machell David F. Title Counselor substance abuse history, client fellowship, and alcoholism treatment outcome: A brief report. Source Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education. Vol 37(1), Fal 1991, 25‑30. Abstract Compared, with treatment peers, the impact of a male or female recovering alcoholic counselor or a male or female nonalcoholic counselor on level of fellowship or perceived belongingness in 200 15‑65 yr old randomly assigned chronic, recidivistic male adult alcoholics. Length of stay in program and relapse rate in a residential treatment setting were also studied. Structured interviews, conducted at 2‑wk intervals during 90‑day treatment, were used in classification of Ss. Results indicate that the counselor's status did not have an impact on perception of belongingness, length of stay, or relapse rate. Nonalcoholic counselors appeared more effective in influencing cluster respondents but less effective in diminishing the isolate perspectives.




Int JSoc Psychiatry 1992 Autumn;38(3):208‑

Counselor training as a treatment for alcoholism: tth helper therapy principle in action.


Kahn MW, Fua C


Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721.


Extensive harmful drinking of alcohol is a major problem for many groups of Australian Aborigines and western treatment approaches have had limited effect. In order to stress cultural factors in treatment, a program to train indigenous Aborigines as alcoholism counselors for their communities was developed. In its more than 10 years of existence 145 counselors have been graduated. Of those initially entering the two year program 60% have graduated. Most of those have found employment as alcohol counselors for their people, and the numbers of Aborigines treated has increased. About 90% of those who entered the training had severe repeated substance abuse disorders in their recent history. The training and the alcohol counseling employment appears to be highly associated with continuing sobriety. For those who graduated the program only 4.8% returned to drinking. Those who completed only the first phase, 8.4% returned to drinking. Of those who were terminated from the program, 74% returned to drinking. Training alcoholics as alcohol counselors appears to be associated with vocational success and maintenance of sobriety as predicted by Riessman's "helper‑therapy principle."






Title Miller, William R; Benefield, R. Gayle; Tonigan, J. Scott.


Enhancing motivation for change in problem drinking: A controlled comparison of two therapist styles. Source Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. Vol 61(3), Jun 1993, 455‑461. Abstract To investigate the impact of counselor style, a 2‑session motivational checkup was offered to 42 problem drinkers (18 women and 24 men) who were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) immediate checkup with directive‑confrontational counseling, (2) immediate checkup with client‑centered counseling, or (3) delayed checkup (waiting‑list control). Overall, the intervention resulted in a 57% reduction in drinking within 6 wks, which was maintained at 1 yr. Clients receiving immediate checkup showed significant reduction in drinking relative to controls. The 2 counseling styles were discriminable on therapist behaviors coded from audiotapes. The directive‑confrontational style yielded significantly more resistance from clients, which in turn predicted poorer outcomes at 1 yr. Therapist styles did not differ in overall impact on drinking, but a single therapist behavior was predictive (r = .65) of 1‑yr outcome such that the more the therapist confronted, the more the client drank.




1994 Author Brown, Barry S. Title Observations on the recent history of drug user counseling. Source International Journal of the Addictions. Vol 28(12), Oct 1993, 1243‑1255. Abstract Explores the drug user counselor role in terms of its changing nature over the past 25 yrs. Initially, the drug user counselor could be characterized as a professional based on his or her experience. Over time, education‑based mental health professionals have become increasingly evident and the professionals of experience (POE) have become less so. It is suggested that studies supporting the particular efficacy of counselors of education for all but drug‑user clients with significant psychopathology are lacking. Moreover, aspects of therapeutic interaction that are more largely engaged in by POE are threatened by their dwindling numbers and the credentialing out of nontraditional job functions. Awareness of the significance of the contributions of POE has been reawakened by recognition of counselors' contributions to AIDS prevention counseling.





1995 Income and Compensation Study of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors Conducted in 1995 by the NAADAC Education and Research Foundation, this newly updated Study is the only tool of its kind available to the profession. It tracks earnings by primary employment, education, experience and certification, self‑employed and salaried respondents, and recovering and non‑recovering respondents. Available from NAADAC at